This volume collects the extended versions of papers presented at the SIS Conference “Statistics and Data Science: new challenges, new generations”, held in Florence, Italy on June 28-30, 2017. Highlighting the central role of statistics and data analysis methods in the era of Data Science, the contributions offer an essential overview of the latest developments in various areas of statistics research. The 35 contributions have been divided into six parts, each of which focuses on a core area contributing to “Data Science”. The book covers topics including strong statistical methodologies, Bayesian approaches, applications in population and social studies, studies in economics and finance, techniques of sample design and mathematical statistics. Though the book is mainly intended for researchers interested in the latest frontiers of Statistics and Data Analysis, it also offers valuable supplementary material for students of the disciplines dealt with here. Lastly, it will help Statisticians and Data Scientists recognize their counterparts’ fundamental role.